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The ancient genetics papers and books listed here are those which have a direct impact on our archaeological work. All other titles with limited interest, though perhaps major works for specialists, are not taken into account.

- ALVES (I.), COELHO (M.), GIGNOUX (C.), DAMASCENO (A.), PRISTA (A.) & ROCHA (J.), 2011, Genetic Homogeneity Across Bantu-Speaking Groups from Mozambique and Angola Challenges Early Split Scenarios between East and West Bantu Populations, Human Biology, 83, 1, pp.13–38.

- ANSARI POUR (N.), PLASTER (C.A.) & BRADMAN (N.), 2013, Evidence from Y-chromosome analysis for a late exclusively eastern expansion of the Bantu-speaking people, European Journal of Human Genetics, 21, pp.423–429.

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- BARBIERI (C.), BUTTHOF (A.), BOSTOEN (K.) & PAKENDORF (B.), 2013, Genetic perspectives on the origin of clicks in Bantu languages from southwestern Zambia, European Journal of Human Genetics, 21, pp.430–436.

- BARBIERI (C.), VICENTE (M.), OLIVEIRA (S.), BOSTOEN (K.), ROCHA (J.), STONEKING (M.) & PAKENDORF (P.), 2014, Migration and Interaction in a Contact Zone: mtDNA Variation among Bantu-Speakers in Southern Africa, PLOS One, 9(6): e99117. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0099117.

- BELEZA (S.), GUSMAÕ (L.), AMORIM (A.), Angel CARRACEDO (A.) & SALAS (A.), 2005, The genetic legacy of western Bantu migrations, Human Genetics, 117, pp.366-375.

- BERNIELL-LEE (G.), CALAFELL (F.), BOSCH (E.), HEYER (E.), SICA (L.), MOUGUIAMA-DAOUDA (P.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), QUINTANA-MURCI (L.) & COMAS (D.), 2009, Genetic and Demographic Implications of the Bantu Expansion: Insights from Human Paternal Lineages, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 26(7), pp.1581–1589.

- BRETON (G.), FORTES-LIMA (C.) & SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.), 2021, Revisiting the demographic history of Central African populations from a genetic perspective, Human Population Genetics and Genomics,

- BUSBY (G.), BAND (G.), LE (Q.S.), JALLOW (M.), BOUGAMA (E.), MANGANO (V.D.), AMANGA-ETEGO (L.N.), ENIMIL (A.), APINJOH (T.), NDILA (C.M.), MANJURANO (A.), NYIRONGO (V.), DOUMBA (O.), ROCKETT (K.A.), KWIATKOWSKI (D.P.), SPENCER (C.), Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network, 2016, Admixture into and within sub-Saharan Africa, ELife, 5:e15266. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.15266, pp.1-44.

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- CASTRY (L.), TOFANELLI (S.), GARAGNANI (P.), BINI (C.), FOSELLA (X.), PELOTTI (S.), PAOLI (G.), PETTENER (D.) & LUISELLI (D.), 2009, mtDNA Variability in Two Bantu-Speaking Populations (Shona and Hutu) From Eastern Africa: Implications for Peopling and Migration Patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 140, pp.302–311.

- CEREZO (M.), ACHILLI (A.), OLIVIERI (A.), PEREGO (U.A.), GOMEZ-CARBALLA (A.), BRISIGHELLI (F.), LANCIONI (H.), WOODWARD (S.R.), LOPEZ-SOTO (M.), CARRACEDO (A.), CAPELLI (C.), TORRONI (A.) & SALAS (A.), 2012, Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe, Genome Research, 22, pp.821–826.

- CHOUDHURY (A.), SENGUPTA (D.), RAMSAY (M.) & SCHLEBUSCH (C.), 2021, Bantu-speaker migration and admixture in southern Africa, Human Molecular Genetics, 30, 2, R56-R63.

- COELHO (M.), SEQUEIRA (F.), LUISELLI (D.), BELEZA (S.) & ROCHA (J.), 2009, On the edge of Bantu expansions: mtDNA, Y chromosome and lactase persistence genetic variation in southwestern Angola, BMC Evolutionary Biology, 9, 80, pp.1-18.

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- DE FILIPPO (C.), HEYN (P.), BARHAM (L.), STONEKING (M.) & PAKENDORF (B.), 2010, Genetic Perspectives on Forager-Farmer Interaction in the Luangwa Valley of Zambia, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141, pp.382–394.

- DE FILIPPO (C.), BARBIERI (C.), WHITTEN (M.), MPOLOKA (S.W.), GUNNARSDOTTIR (E.D.), BOSTOEN (K.), NYAMBE (T.), BEYER (K.), SCHREIBER (H.), DE KNIJFF (P.), LUISELLI (D.), STONEKING (M.) & PAKENDORF (B.), 2011, Y-Chromosomal Variation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Insights Into the History of Niger-Congo Groups, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(3), pp.1255-1269.

- DE FILIPPO (C.), BOSTOEN (K.), STONEKING (M.) & PAKENDORF (B.), 2012, Bringing together linguistic and genetic evidence to test the Bantu expansion, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279, pp.3256–3263.

- DESTRO-BISOL (G.), COIA (V.), BOSCHI (I.), VERGINELLI (F.), CAGLIA (A.), PASCALI (V.), SPEDINI (G.) & CALAFELL (F.), 2004, The analysis of variation of mtDNA hypervariable region 1 suggests that Eastern and Western Pygmies diverged before the Bantu expansion, Am. Nat., 163, pp.212–226.

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- ESTOUP (A.), VERDU (P.), MARIN (J.-M.), ROBERT (C.), DEHNE-GARCIA (A.) CORNUET (J.-M.) & PUDLO (P.), 2018, Application of ABC to Infer the Genetic History of Pygmy Hunter-Gatherer Populations from Western Central Africa, In SISSON (S.A.), FAN (Y.) & BEAUMONT (M.) eds., Handbook of Approximate Bayesian Computation, Chapman and Hall/CRC, pp. 541-567.

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- FAN (S.), KELLY (D.E.), BELTRAME (M.H.), HANSEN (M.E.B.), MALLICK (S.), RANCIARO (A.), HIRBO(J.H.), THOMPSON (S.), BEGGS (W.), NYAMBO (T.), OMAR (S.A.), MESKEL (D.W.), BELAY (G.), FROMENT (A.), PATTERSON (N.), REICH (D.) & TISHKOFF (S.A.), 2019, African evolutionary history inferred from whole genome sequence data of 44 indigenous African populations, Genome Biology, 20, 82.

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- GELABERT (P.), FERRANDO-BERNAL (M.), DE-DIOS (T.), MATORRE (B.), CAMPOY (E.), GOROSTIZA (A.), PATIN (E.), GONZÁLEZ-MARTIN (A.) & LALUEZA-FOX (C.), 2019, Genome-wide data from the Bubi of Bioko Island clarifies the Atlantic fringe of the Bantu dispersal, BMC Genomics, 20, 179, pp.1-13.

- GOPALAN (S.), BERL (R.E.W.), MYRICK (J.W.), GARFIELD (Z.H.), REYNOLDS (A.W.), BAFENS (B.K.), BELBIN (G.), MASTORAS (M.), WILLIAMS (C.), DAYA (M.), NEGASH (A.N.), FELDMAN (M.W.), HEWLETT (B.S.) & HENN (B.M.), 2022, Hunter-gatherer genomes reveal diverse demographic trajectories during the rise of farming in Eastern Africa, Current Biology, 32, pp. 1852-1860.

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- LI (S.), SCHLEBUSCH (C.) & JAKOBSSON (M.), 2014, Genetic variation reveals large-scale population expansion and migration during the expansion of Bantu-speaking peoples, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 281, 20141448, 11 pages.

- LOPEZ (M.), CHOIN (J.), SIKORA (M.), SIDDLE (K.), HARMANT (C.), COSTA (H.A.), SILVERT (M.), MOUGUIAMA-DAOUDA (P.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), FROMENT (A.), LE BOMIN (S.), PERRY (G.H.), BARREIRO (L.B.), BUSTAMANTE (C.D.), VERDU (P.), PATIN (E.) & QUINTANA-MURCIL (L.), 2019, Genomic Evidence for Local Adaptation of Hunter-Gatherers to the African Rainforest, Current Biology, 29, pp.1-10. [Region, Cameroon, Gabon, Uganda]

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- MALYARCHUK (B.A.) & CZARNY (J.), 2005, African DNA Lineages in the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Europeans, Molecular Biology, 39, 5, pp.703–709.

- MONTANO (V.), FERRI (G.), MARCARI (V.), BATINI (C.), ANYAELE (O.), DESTRO-BISOL (G.) & COMAS (D.), 2011, The Bantu expansion revisited: a new analysis of Y chromosome variation in Central Western Africa, Molecular Ecology, 20, pp.2693–2708.

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- PAKENDORF (B.), BOSTOEN (K.) & DE FILIPPO (C.), 2011, Molecular Perspectives on the Bantu Expansion: A Synthesis, Language Dynamics and Change, 1, pp.50–88.

- PATIN (E.), SIDDLE (K.J.), LAVAL (G.), QUACH (H.), HARMANT (C.), BECKER (N.), FROMENT (A.), REGNAULT (B.), LEMEE (L.), GRAVEL (S.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), DOMINY (N.J.), PERRY (G.H.), BARREIRO (L.B.), VERDU (P.), HEYER (E.) & QUINTANA-MURCI (L.), 2014, The impact of agricultural emergence on the genetic history of African rainforest hunter-gatherers and agriculturalists, Nature Communications, 5, 3163, 10 pages.

- PATIN (E.), LOPEZ (M.), GROLLEMUND (R.), VERDU (P.), HARMANT (C.), QUACH (H.), LAVAL (G.), PERRY (G.H.), BARREIRO (L.B.), FROMENT (A.), HEYER (E.), MASSOUGBODJI (A.), FORTES-LIMA (C.), MIGOT-NABIAS (F.), BELLIS (G.), DUGOUJON (J.-M.), PEREIRA (J.B.), FERNANDES (V.), PEREIRA (L.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), MOUGUIAMA-DAOUDA (P.), BUSTAMANTE (C.D.), HOMBERT (J.-M.) & QUINTANA-MURCI (L.), 2017, Dispersals and genetic adaptation of Bantu-speaking populations in Africa and North America, Science, 356, pp.543–546.

- PEREIRA (L.), MACAULAY (V.), TORRONI (A.), SCOZZARI (R.), PRATA (M.-J.) & AMORIM (A.), 2001, Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade, Ann. Hum. Genet., 65, pp.439-458.

- PICKRELL (J.K.), PATTERSON (N.), BARBIERI (C.), BERTHOLD (F.), GERLACH (L.), GÜLDEMANN (T.), KURE (B.), MPOLOKA (S.W.), NAKAGAWA (H.), NAUMANN (C.), LIPSON (M.), LOH (P.R.), LACHANCE (J.), MOUNTAIN (J.), BUSTAMANTE (C.D.), BERGER (B.), TISHKOFF (S.A.), HENN (B.M.), STONEKING (M.), REICH (D.) & PAKENDORF (B.), 2012, The genetic prehistory of southern Africa, Nature Communications, 3, 1143, 6 pages.

- PLAZA (S.), SALAS (A.), CALAFELL (F.), CORTE-REAL (F.), BERTRANPETIT (J.), CARRACEDO (A.) & COMAS (D.), 2004, Insights into the western Bantu dispersal: mtDNA lineage analysis in Angola, Human Genetics, 115, pp.439–447.

- PRENDERGAST (M.E.), LIPSON (M.), SAWCHUK (E.A.), OLALDE (I.), OGOLA (C.A.), ROHLAND (N.), SIRAK (K.A.), ADAMSKI (N.), BERNARDOS (R.), BROOMANDKHOSHBACHT (N.), CALLAN (K.), CULLETON (B.J.), ECCLES (L.), HARPER (T.K.), LAWSON (A.-M.), MAH (M.), OPPENHEIMER (J.), STEWARDSON (K.), ZALZALA (F.), AMBROSE (S.), AYODO (G.), GATES Jr. (H.L.), GIDNAL (A.), KATONGO (M.), KWEKASON (A.), MABULLA (A.Z.P.), MUDENDA (G.S.), NDIEMA (E.K.), NELSON (C.), ROBERTSHAW (P.), KENNETT (D.J.), MANTHI (F.K.), REICH (D.), 2019, Ancient DNA reveals a multistep spread of the first herders into sub-Saharan Africa, Science, 30 May.

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- QUINTANA-MURCI (L.), QUACHA (H.), HARMANTA (C.), LUCA (F.), MASSONETA (B.), PATINA (E.), SICA (L.), MOUGUIAMA-DAOUDA (P.), COMAS (D.), TZUR (S.), BALANOVSKY (O.), KIDD (K.H.), KIDD (J.R.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), GESSAIN (A.), VERDU (P.), FROMENT (A.), BAHUCHET (S.), HEYER (E.), DAUSSET (J.), SALAS (A.) & BEHAR (D.M.), 2008, Maternal traces of deep common ancestry and asymmetric gene flow between Pygmy hunter– gatherers and Bantu-speaking farmers, Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 105, 5, pp. 1596-1601.

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- RITO (T.), RICHARDS (M.B.), FERNANDES (V.), ALSHAMALI (F.), CERNY (V.), PEIREIRA (L.), SOARES (P.), 2013, The First Modern Human Dispersals across Africa, PLOS One, 8, 11, e80031, 16 pages.

- ROCHA (J.) & FEHN (A.-M.), 2016, Genetics and Demographic History of the Bantu, eLS, Wiley Online Library,, Published Online: 15 November 2016.

- ROWOLD (D.R.), GARCIA-BERTRAND (R.), CALDERON (S.), RIVERA (L.), BENEDICO (D.P.), SANCHEZ (M.A.A.), CHENNAKRISHNAIAH (S.), VARELA (M.) & HERRERA (R.J.), 2014, At the southeast fringe of the Bantu expansion: genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships to other sub-Saharan tribes, Meta Gene, 2, pp.670-685.

- ROWOLD (D.J.), PEREZ-BENEDICO (D.), STOJKOVIC (O.), GARCIA-BERTRAND (R.) & HERRERA (R.J.), 2016, On the Bantu expansion, Gene, 593, pp. 48–57.

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- SALAS (A.), RICHARDS (M.), DE LA FE (T.), LAREU (M.-V.), SOBRINO (B.), SANCHEZ-DIZ (P.), MACAULAY (V.) & CARRACEDO (A.), 2002, The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics, 71, pp.1082-1111.

- SALAS (A.), CARRACEDO (A.), RICHARDS (M.) & MACAULAY (V.), 2005, Charting the Ancestry of African Americans, American Journal of Human Genetics, 77, pp.676-680.

- SCHEINFELDT (L.B.), SOI (S.), & TISHKOFF (S.A.), 2010, Working toward a synthesis of archaeological, linguistic, and genetic data for inferring African population history, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, May 11, 107, pp.8931-8938.

- SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.), 2019, Population migration and adaptation during the African Holocene: A genetic perspective, In SAHLE (Y.), REYES-CENTENO (H.) & BENTZ (Ch.) editors, Modern Human Origins and Dispersal, Kerns Verlag, Tübingen, pp. 261-283.

- SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.) & JAKOBSSON (M.), 2018, Tales of Human Migration, Admixture, and Selection in Africa, Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, 19, pp.405-428.

- SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.), SKOGLUND (P.), SJÖDIN (P.), GATTEPAILLE (L.M.), HERNANDEZ (D.), JAY (F.), LI (S.), DE JONGH (M.), SINGLETON (A.), BLUM (M.G.B.), SOODYALL (H.), JAKOBSSON (M.), 2012, Genomic Variation in Seven Khoe-San Groups Reveals Adaptation and Complex African History, Science, 19 October, 338, 374, pp.374-379.

- SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.), MALMSTRÖM (H.), GÜNTHER (T.), SJÖDIN (P.), COUTINHO (A.), EDLUND (H.), MUNTERS (A.R.), VICENTE (M.), STEYN (M.), SOODYALL (H.), LOMBARD (M.)& JAKOBSSON (M.), 2017, Southern African ancient genomes estimate modern human divergence to 350,000-260,000 years ago, Science, 358, 6363, pp.652-655.

- SEMO (A.), GAYÀ-VIDAL (M.), FORTES-LIMA (C.), ALARD (B.), OLIVEIRA (S.), ALMEIDA (J.), PRISTA (A.), DAMASCENO (A.), FEHN (A.-M.), SCHLEBUSCH (C.) & ROCHA (J.), 2019, Mozambican genetic variation provides new insights into the Bantu expansion, bioRxiv, posted online on Posted July 10, 2019.

- SENGUPTA (D.), CHOUDHURY (A.), FORTES-LIMA (C.), ARON (S.), WHITELAW (G.), BOSTOEN (K.), GUNNINK (H.), CHOUSOU-POLYDOURI (N.), DELIUS (P.), TOLLMAN (S.), GÓMEZ-OLIVÉ (F.X.), NORRIS (S.), MASHINYA (F.), ALBERTS (M.), AWI-GEN STUDY, H3AFRICA CONSORTIUM, HAZELHURST (S.), SCHLEBUSCH (C.M.) & RAMSAY (M.), 2021, Genetic substructure and complex demographic history of South African Bantu speakers, Nature communications, 12, 1, pp. 1-13.

- SILVA (M.), ALSHAMALI (F.), SILVA (P.), CARRILHO (C.), MANDLATE (F.), TROVOADA (M.J.), EERNY (V.), PEREIRA (L.) & SOARES (P.), 2015, 60,000 years of interactions between Central and Eastern Africa documented by major African mitochondrial haplogroup L2, Nature Scientific Reports, 5:12526 | DOI: 10.1038/srep12526


- SOARES (P.), ALSHAMALI (F.), PEREIRA (J.B.), FERNANDES (V.L.), SILVA (N.M.), AFONSO (C.), COSTA (M.D.), MUSILOVA (E.), MACAULAY (V.), RICHARDS (M.B.), CERNY (V.) & PEREIRA (L.), 2012, The Expansion of mtDNA Haplogroup L3 within and out of Africa, Mol. Biol. Evol., 29(3), pp.915–927.

- STEYN (M.), WHITELAW (G.), BOTHA (D.), VICENTE (M.), SCHLEBUSCH (C.), & LOMBARD (M.), 2019, Four Iron Age women from KwaZulu-Natal: biological anthropology, genetics and archaeological context, Southern African Humanities, 32, pp.23–56.

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- TISHKOFF (S.A.), GONDER (M.K.), HENN (B.M.), MORTENSEN (H.), KNIGHT (A.), GIGNOUX (C.), FERNANDOPULLE (N.), LEMA (G.), NYAMBO (T.B.), RAMAKRISHNAN (U.), REED (F.A.) & MOUNTAIN (J.L.), 2007, History of Click-Speaking Populations of Africa Inferred from mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Variation, Mol. Biol. Evol., 24(10), pp.2180–2195.

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- VAN DER VEEN (L.), QUINTANA-MURCI (L.) & COMAS (D.), 2009, Linguistic, cultural and genetic perspectives on human diversity in west-central Africa, In D'ERRICO (F.) & HOMBERT (J.-M.) eds., Becoming Eloquent: Advances in the emergence of language, human cognition, and modern cultures, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam & Philadelphia, pp. 93-121.

- VERDU (P.), 2016, Quick guide: African Pygmies, Current Biology Magazine, January 11, 26, R1–R21.

- VERDU (P.), AUSTERLITZ (F.), ESTOUP (A.), VITALIS (R.), GEORGES (M.), THÉRY (S.), FROMENT (A.), LE BOMIN (S.), GESSAIN (A.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), QUINTANA-MURCI (L.), BAHUCHET (S.) & HEYER (E.), 2009, Origins and Genetic Diversity of Pygmy Hunter-Gatherers from Western Central Africa, Current Biology, February 24, 319, pp.312-318.

- VERDU (P.), BECKER (N.S.A.), FROMENT (A.), GEORGES (M.), GRUGNI (V.), QUINTANA-MURCI (L.), HOMBERT (J.-M.), VAN DER VEEN (L.), LE BOMIN (S.), BAHUCHET (S.), HEYER (E.) & AUSTERLITZ (F.), 2013, Sociocultural Behavior, Sex-Biased Admixture, and Effective Population Sizes in Central African Pygmies and Non-Pygmies, Mol. Biol. Evol. 30(4), pp. 918–937.

- VICENTE (M.) and SCHLEBUSCH (C.), 2021, Ancient DNA Studies and African Population History, In SCHLEBUSCH (C.), FORTES-LIMA (C.) & MTETWA (E.) eds. Africa, the cradle of human diversity. Joining cultural and biological approaches to uncover African diversity (Acts of the International meeting, Uppsala University, 22-25 May 2019), Brill Academic Publishers, Leiden, pp. 236-256.

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- WANG (K.), GOLDSTEIN (S.), BLEASDALE (M.), CLIST (B.), BOSTOEN (K.), BAKWA-LUFU (P.), BUCK (L.T.), CROWTHER (A.), DÈME (A.), MCINTOSH (R.J.), MERCADER (J.), OGOLA (C.), POWER (R.), SAWCHUK (E.), ROBERTSHAW (P.), WILMSEN (E.N.), PETRAGLIA (M.), NDIEMA (E.), MANTHI (F.K.), KRAUSE (J.), ROBERTS (P.), BOIVIN (N.) & SCHIFFELS (S.), 2020, Ancient genomes reveal complex patterns of population movement, interaction and integration in sub Saharan Africa, Science Advances, 6 (24), 10 June 2020.

- WOOD (E.T.), STOVER (D.A.), EHRET (C.), DESTRO-BISO (G.), SPEDIN (G.), MCLEOD (H.), LOUIE (L.), BAMSHAD (M.), STRASSMAN (B.I.), SOODYALL (H.) & HAMMER (M.), 2005, Contrasting patterns of Y chromosome and mtDNA variation in Africa: evidence for sex-biased demographic processes, European Journal of Human Genetics, 13, pp.867–876.

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